Published Articles

An Interview with Marisa Constantinides

by Vicky Papageorgiou

The interview first appeared on ELTA Serbia newsletter Autumn 2018 edition


Marisa is a teacher, teacher educator,  and ELT author; she is the Director of Studies of CELT Athens responsible for the design and implementation of all courses offered at CELT.

Her main ELT qualifications are a Diploma in TEFLA (the RSA Dip. TEFLA,  predecessor to the Cambridge Delta) and an M.A. in Applied Linguistics from Reading University.Marisa is a frequent conference presenter and keynote speaker – some recent presentations can be viewed here – and has presented at IATEFL International, TESOL France, Brazil TESOL, TESOL Greece as well as on numerous online Conferences and Events and has served as a member of the Committee of the IATEFL Learning Technologies SIG (Special Interest Group).

Marisa is one of the founding moderators of  a weekly hash tagged discussion of ELT teachers on Twitter which was nominated & shortlisted in the 2012 ELTon Awards for Innovation in Teacher Resources.     Marisa co-moderates #ELTchat on Twitter every Wednesday  (find more info on theELTchat blog.)



‘Canto di aci’ (popular poem) by Lionardo Vigo

In 2013  I translated from Sicilian into Greek  the poem ‘Canto di aci’ (dalla colelzione di canti popolari di Lionardo Vigo, Catania – Sicilia 1857) for the concert program of the Department of Music (Aristotle University ) and the DissonArt Ensemble. The concert featured ‘Il giardino di Sara’ di Salvatore Sciarrino (2008).


DEBATE : Is Graffiti a form of Art or Vandalism ?

This series of lesson plans fist appeared on the Visual Arts Circle and can be found Visual Arts Circle. I am sharing it here too so that it is archived.


By Vicky Papageorgiou

The classroom debate is a highly useful tool for a teacher. It provides the students with an excellent opportunity to improve their fluency skills and to extend their vocabulary while, at the same time, discussing about complex contemporary issues and developing the students’ critical thinking skills. If organised carefully, classroom debates are something your students will look forward to.

Introducing a debate in the ELT classroom is a complex process without any doubt. If none of the students has ever taken part in a debate, the teacher has to ensure that several steps are followed :

  1. It should be understood by the students that preparing for a debate is a type of project and it requires several hours of preparation
  2. The topic for debate should be clear and the students should be, at least partly, familiar with it
  3. The steps the students should follow  should be clear and gradual until  they reach the moment of the debate
  4. The students should have enough possibilities to be well informed about the topic of discussion before the actual debate takes place

For these reasons, my first debate with a class is always about a familiar but quite controversial topic : Graffiti! This particular series of lesson plans has been used several times in my classes always with great success and hopefully it will be the same for anyone else who will use them in the future. It should also be noted that they have been used with students B1+ as well as with B2+ with equal success. In each case, the teacher can make small modifications to cater for the needs of the specific class.

The teacher should also be aware that the whole preparation takes no less than 4-5 hours and might also reach the 6 hours, depending on the particular class and level.

Below you can find the lesson plans for each session (there are 3 in total)  and the accompanying worksheets.

This is the document with all the Lesson plans Graffiti class debate lesson plans (Autosaved)

For the 1st session, the documents you will need are :

  1. Graffiti Art or vandalism Warmer
  2. True False statements about Graffiti.1
  3. A short history of Graffiti

For the 2nd session, the documents are :

  1. GRAFFITI Arguments FOR and AGAINST
  2. How to build a strong debate argument
  3. Useful Debate expressions (1)

For the 3rd and last session (the actual debate), you will need :

  1. Debate Rubric

I really hope you enjoy using all the materials. If you do, please come back and leave a comment. Any observations are welcome. Enjoy!

Vicky Papageorgiou is an ESL/EAP Lecturer  working with mainly adult learners. She holds a BA from Aristotle University (with Distinction) and was awarded an MA in Education (Open Univ. of Cyprus) and an MA in Art History (Goldsmiths College, UK), as well as a  PGCE in Technology Enhanced Learning from the University of Wales Trinity Saint David (with Distinction). She now divides her time between Greece and the UK.  She is the website editor of the Visual Arts Circle and a co-editor of ELTA Serbia publications.

DEBATE : Is Graffiti a form of Art or Vandalism ?

The first of a series of lesson plans for the Visual Arts Circle

Visual Arts Circle


By Vicky Papageorgiou

The classroom debate is a highly useful tool for a teacher. It provides the students with an excellent opportunity to improve their fluency skills and to extend their vocabulary while, at the same time, discussing about complex contemporary issues and developing the students’ critical thinking skills. If organised carefully, classroom debates are something your students will look forward to.

Introducing a debate in the ELT classroom is a complex process without any doubt. If none of the students has ever taken part in a debate, the teacher has to ensure that several steps are followed :

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An Interview with Daniel Xerri

This interview first appeared on the March-April issue of the ELTA Serbia newsletter

By Vicky Papageorgiou

αρχείο λήψης

Daniel Xerri is a Lecturer in TESOL at the University of Malta. He is a member of IATEFL’s Conference Committee and of TESOL International Association’s Research Professional Council. Between 2015 and 2017, he was the Joint Coordinator of the IATEFL Research SIG. He holds postgraduate degrees in English and Applied Linguistics, as well as a PhD in Education from the University of York. He is the author of many publications on different areas of education and TESOL. His most recent books are The Image in English Language Teaching (2017, ELT Council), and Teacher Involvement in High-stakes Language Testing (2018, Springer). Further details about his talks and publications can be found at:

Vicky : Daniel, first of all, I would like to thank you for agreeing to give this interview.

Daniel : Thanks so much for inviting me to be interviewed. I’m very happy to share my thoughts and work with your readers.

Vicky : You are a very active and creative person. How do you manage such multiple interests?

Daniel : I don’t sleep much and work most of the time. Joking aside, I think it’s all about doing things that I’m passionate about. I’m lucky enough to be able to find the time to work on the things I’m interested in. Writing is perhaps what I enjoy doing the most in my professional and personal life. So, I consider it natural to spend a lot of time every week working on new articles and books.

Vicky : I know that your interest fields are creativity, research, CPD, etc. The fact that one of your research fields is poetry I think is fascinating. Can you tell us about using poetry as interview stimulus material?

Daniel : In my research on creativity education, I’ve used poetry as a means of exploring the attitudes, beliefs and practices of teachers and students. This involved providing them with a reflexive poem that depicted a lesson scenario and asking them to comment on it. By discussing the poem, they revealed what they thought about creativity and the use of creative texts in the classroom. The poem acted as a stimulus for their thoughts and perspectives.

Vicky : I was reading another article of yours on ‘teacher versatility’ and creativity and  how much you value the openness that teachers should cultivate so that they allow their practices in the classroom to be influenced by disciplines that could be even totally unrelated to language teaching.  How do you think that teachers can accomplish this?

Daniel : Teachers are thinking beings and they have views on a myriad of things that might not be directly related to English language teaching. By tapping their different interests and by being open to external influences, they can enrich their teaching and enhance their students’ learning experience. The important thing is to be willing to make connections between elements and disciplines that might not seem to be explicitly connected. Language teaching is not a compartmentalized activity. It is something that can draw energy from other fields of activity. Being willing to enrich language lessons by means of one’s different interests is the first step to being more versatile as a teacher.

Vicky : Knowledge of the language or knowledge about the language? Which of these two is more important for a language teacher?

Daniel : I think they’re equally important and it would be mistaken to ignore either one. A fairly good level of language proficiency is necessary in order for a teacher to teach the target language but so is well-developed teacher language awareness. In fact, some argue that language awareness contributes to more effective teaching. Teachers – and by extension learners – benefit immensely from initiatives aimed at developing language proficiency, language awareness, together with knowledge of teaching methodology and other competences.

Vicky : There has been an increasing interest of English language teachers in research. What are the challenges of training teachers to do classroom research?

Daniel : One of the biggest challenges consists of the way research is conceptualized. Even though research can be a powerful form of professional development, the way some teachers think about research can act as an obstacle to them engaging with and in research. If teachers limit themselves to the conceptions of research foisted upon them by academia, then they are unlikely to see research as something that they could do in their own context.

Vicky : Can you talk to us about your plenary speech at our ELTA Serbia Conference?

Daniel : In my plenary, I plan to challenge traditional conceptions of research and demonstrate how teacher research is a democratic activity that belongs to all classroom practitioners. My talk is based on a project that investigates the views of academics, teacher trainers and teacher association leaders from around the world. The people who have contributed to this project share the view that research can be an empowering activity for teachers if they are enabled to see it as an integral part of their professional identity.

Vicky : Daniel, with already over 100 publications, a very active professional life, what are your plans for the future?

Daniel : My immediate plans are to complete two books that are being published later this year, and strive to meet the deadlines for different articles and chapters that I’m currently working on. All that is on top of refurbishing the 300-year-old house that I’ve just moved into!

Vicky : Thank you!


Hacking digital learning strategies

Reviewed by Vicky Papageorgiou

This review first appeared on the March-April issue of the Serbia ELTA newsletter

Keywords : technology, learning strategies, digital learning, mobile apps, mission-based learning


Shelly Sanchez’s books are always highly anticipated because they are useful, practical, well written and fun to read! This new one, under the title ‘Hacking digital learning strategies ‘,  is no exception to the rule, therefore. A completely student centered book which focusses on learning strategies.

The book is divided in 10 missions. Each chapter comprises a set of steps, which the teacher can follow to complete the mission with their students, as well as, a section about the anticipated problems and a mission prep section. An additional section is the Mission Toolkit in the last pages of the book which offers storyboards, question sets, templates, maps, tables, handouts, mission task cards, badges,  etc. and anything useful for the teacher when planning these missions in their class.

In the first mission, entitled DESIGN A GAME WALKTHROUGH : Create a Tutorial and Teach Others How to Play, Sanchez describes how an  experience she had in a classroom taught her a valuable lesson : she didn’t have to do all the teaching or know all the answers, which led her to realize that students could design instructional content and, thus,  gain, as well as, share knowledge, a process which motivates them immensely in the end. Therefore, in this first chapter she explains how students teach others how to play a game with a video walkthrough that they create.

In the second mission, called GO ON A SELFIE ADVENTURE : Define Yourself Through Images, Sanchez makes use of the so popular selfies among students which also offer the opportunity for reflection. It is a fact that young learners are not necessarily fully aware of this process, however, posting these selfies after manipulating them is because they are opting for the best shot as they know their peers will rate them! This specific mission’s purpose is to teach learners how to make responsible decisions about their own digital identities.

The third chapter is about CREATING A FICTIONAL SOCIAL MEDIA PROFILE : Manage your digital footprint more purposefully. Believing that to teach the learners how to navigate the digital world with all the necessary skills, confidence and support is of pivotal importance, the next mission has exactly this as its sole purpose : to deepen the students’ reflective means and understand what building  confident digital identity entails. All this, through historical figures!

Mission 4 is REMIX LEARNING INTO A DIGITAL TEXTBOOK : Produce and publish an engaging online book. It’s aim is to encourage students to be responsible and choose the learning materials they need and not just accept them as given by teachers. The right expression would be ‘expect them to personalize their own learning even though they are young’! Following this pathway, they have to create their own digital textbook ‘helping others learn the topic in an engaging way’, as Sanchez claims.

Next come the debates and the 5th Mission’s title is DEBATE ISSUES, DON’T DISS PEOPLE :Argue differences of opinion respectfully. Disagreements on social media are a frequent occurrence and while they result in all parties feeling offended, most of them miss the opportunity for a constructive discussion. While these public arguments are part of our daily social media life, the author believes (quite correctly!) that our curriculums still teach our learners long written argumentative essays, considering, therefore, the need for teaching them shorter arguments in combination with teaching them how to respond intelligently to people with different opinions. Adapting to the new conditions of our life, thus, is a necessity and also has a practical side which teachers are called upon to equip their students with. Our students learn to be respectful and intelligent digital citizens.

In chapter 6, ‘Seek and preserve the truth’, Shelly focusses on the quest for truth when everyone is exposed to ‘fake news’, she tries to show how we can motivate our students to care and preserve the truth.

In chapter 7, ASSEMBLE A GLOBAL CLASS MEETUP : Join the World Community and Discuss a Pressing Issue, she tackles on the problem of helping students to understand the role as global citizens and find interest in global issues. For this reason, she suggests that teachers and students organise video conferences with classes from different countries whew students participate in a cultural exchange activity.

In the next chapter, students are required to conduct Real-World Field Research and suggests we shoulod see students as problem solvers and innovators. So, this new mission is all about publishing field research to enlighten the public.

In chapter 9, APPRECIATE OTHERS  WITH A DIGITAL BADGE, Shelly points out that , more than grades, we need to recognise values. Digital badges are used to recognise achievements, claiming that ‘When students issue their badges, they

send a message to their peers that they recognize their achievements and skills’. In this mission, students design  digital badges to issue to their peers.

In the final chapter, CROWDFUND INNOVATION TO FIND SOLUTIONS, suggest ways we, educators, can help students innovate solutions to make a difference by , for example, crowdfunding to help improve their communities.

Mission-based learning is , in fact, a powerful and meaningful way of empowering our students , not by just teaching them a language but by teaching them at the same time of being global citizens , responsible  contributors and and caring human beings.

Overall, this is an excellent read and a very resourceful book which can be an invaluable tool for teachers of young learners as well as teachers of teenagers, if only with a few modifications in the mission procedures. It belongs in every school’s and every teacher’s library!

Film in Action: Teaching Language Using Moving Images: A Book Review

This review was initially published in ELTA Newsletter: September-October 2016

Published on Sep 25, 2016

ELTA Newsletter: September-October 2016

Film in Action: Teaching Language Using Moving Images: A Book Review

Reviewed by Vicky Papageorgiou, Metropolitan College, Thessaloniki, Greece

Keywords : Kieran Donaghy, spectacle, film literacy, mobile devices, producing short films, critical thinking, creativity, cultural awareness, film integration in scholastic syllabus


Images dominate our lives. We see them around us every day, they have a powerful hold on us and they define us. In our image-saturated society and way of life, the spectacle is now the visible world itself, increasingly defining our perception of life itself, as Debord (1967) put it.

Film has long been a fertile field of the spectacle and one of our society’s most popular ones. Educators have not overlooked this fact but instead they tried to exploit it in multiple ways. A book that illustrates exactly this, in a practical as well as a sophisticated way, is Kieran Donaghy’s ‘Film in Action’, published for   the DELTA Teacher Development Series.

The book is divided in 3 sections.

Section A serves in a way as an introduction to the whole book-project. It sets the framework of what the author is trying to do, his beliefs, his aspirations, starting with the theoretical background of the role film has within society, education and language learning. He moves on to analyze  film literacy in the twenty-first century and the educational benefits that can derive from creating films. He closes this chapter with suggestions about using film in the classroom which is followed by a short but important section where Kieran recommends several resources that educators can use should they require further reading. A quite comprehensive list of bibliographical references is also included in the very end of the chapter.

Section B is dedicated to more practical activities that teachers can use in the classroom. Chapter One presents a lot of communicative activities that encourage learners to watch films with a critical eye. Hence the title ‘Watching actively’! There are nearly 70 suggested activities which cover topics from making predictions, ordering scenes, identifying stereotypes to debating the conventions and aesthetics of TV ads, describing a visual poem and to looking at the importance of paralinguistic facts.

Chapter two, called ‘Actively Producing’ is a special one and one that distinguishes this book from others. The author, acknowledging the importance that mobile devices have nowadays in our everyday life, dedicates a whole section to a range of activities that can lead learners to produce their own short film texts outside or inside the classroom. Donaghy  underlines  also how inexpensive this is since all that the students need is a mobile device, which most of them already own.

Some of the best suggested activities are : ‘From sky to screen’, ‘A natural voice-over’, ‘Revoice’, ‘I am what I am….or am I’, ‘Linking up’, ‘60’’ descriptions’, and several others which encourage learners to be creative and resourceful.

The last section of the book, section C, looks into the possibility of establishing film as an integral part of the scholastic syllabus rather than treating it as an add-on subject. In doing so, the author recommends four significant projects that schools can adopt : a Film club, a Film circle, a Film course and a Film chronicle, all of which promote critical thinking, creativity and cultural awareness. In this section, Kieran Donaghy also gives organizational ideas on how to implement any of these projects in our schools.

What makes then this book special in English language teaching?

  1. The theoretical framework that the book provides
      • Kieran tries to frame a theoretical background in the most well rounded way this is possible because his aspiration is that film is fully integrated in the scholastic syllabus.
      • The book is also quite well documented so that educators can use it easily as a reference book.
  1. There is a very practical side of it.
      • What is offered is a wide range of activities which, besides being quite easy to use, they also leave a lot of room to the teacher’s creativity and experimentation as they are not meant for a specific film/documentary each time. These are only suggestions and they can cater for different tastes/choices in films
      • Finally, useful links are provided to facilitate the teachers’ search for suitable film clips or short films (e.g. pages 39, 48, 49, 50 and many  more) or opening titles (p.36) and websites with ads (p. 38).


«What is essential is invisible to the eye», as de Saint Exupéry says (2000). Film, in fact, is one of those multifaceted media that because they are primarily the result of artistic expression, they can be open to multiple interpretations, making it a rather fascinating and challenging medium for educators and learners, among others of course. Kieran has obviously risen to this challenge!




‘Reconstructing the Social and Political Theory of Education: Foucault and the School Management Practices of Knowledge. From Surveillance Policy to Empowerment Policy of the Self’

My article ‘Reconstructing the Social and Political Theory of Education: Foucault and the School Management Practices of Knowledge. From Surveillance Policy to Empowerment Policy of the Self’ in the Humanising Language Teaching, in the Major articles section.

The article can be found here Humanising Language Teaching

Reconstructing the Social and Political Theory of Education: Foucault and the School Management Practices of Knowledge. From Surveillance Policy to Empowerment Policy of the Self

Vicky Papageorgiou, Greece

Vicky Papageorgiou (Med) is an ESL/EAP lecturer and also a co-editor at ELTA Serbia Publications and editor of the Visual Arts Circle. She divides her time between Thessaloniki (Greece), working at Metropolitan College, and Oxford, working as a summer EFL instructor (Oxford St Clare’s College). E-mail:





Power relations

Foucault and education

From Surveillance Policy to Empowerment of the Self




The aim of this study is to try to question concepts regarding the sociology of education based on Michel Foucault’s views and to seek ways of analysis through the work of the French theorist to critically address the various theoretical problems that arise, as well as schooling practices.

In the first part of this paper, we will try to approach the work of the French theorist initially by analyzing his positions regarding power relations. In the second part, mainly through his work «Surveillance and Punishment», we will develop the sociology of the school act as described in his work. In the last part, ways of empowering both students and teachers will be presented as a means of resisting a monitoring and control policy.


Power relations

In Foucault’s work, although multifaceted, central is always the issue of power, setting a pioneering conceptualization, which is opposed to both Marxism and liberalism. Foucault studied and elaborated on the great transformations of Western societies which occurred in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. He dealt, in particular, with the issue of the body and how it is transformed into an object of authority (Smart B., 1999), but also discussed techniques related to the manipulation, surveillance and control of the bodies, which began to appear in modern societies. Through them a new form of power emerged, which was exercised over the bodies of individuals and populations: the disciplinary power, manifested through normalization and discipline (Foucault, 1980 [1975]).

This power subjugated the forces of the body and then imposed on the bodies a relationship of discipline and utility. For Foucault, there was a wider discipline mechanism, which developed during the 19th century and was a normalization and surveillance mechanism. Foucault talks about a «panoptic» body that monitors and one which transforms the individual into an object of information and a source of knowledge and not a subject of communication (Foucault, 1991 [1975]). Consequently, we are talking about the creation of submissive bodies.

Yet, Foucault does not refer to ‘one’ power only but to ‘power relations’. There is, therefore, no center of authority, but central mechanisms of power that derive from power-enforcement relationships, such as those occurring between children and families, citizens and administration, students and teachers or families. All relations, therefore, for him are possessed by the concept of power. That is why he suggests that we should study the implications of this [power] and not ask questions about its nature.

The power relations, according to Foucault, are characterized by multiplicity, not just by bipolarity. Thus, endless fields of resistance arise (Marsh J., p. 291). Power is exercised, not imposed as it is also not only forbidding and the reason for this is that it cannot function only like that (Foucault M., p. 108). In particular, as far as modern forms of power are concerned, we must say that they are not primarily negative. That is why these forms of power are accepted. The opposite would surprise us.

To be more specific, both the issue of the emergence of modern self through the disciplining technologies and the power / knowledge technologies are linked through the concept of governmentality in Foucault’s work (Foucault, 1991). The exercise of power is intended to «educate» the subjects, according to him. To describe this situation, he uses the term «government» or «intergovernmentalism», a term which presupposes the existence of «free subjects» (Foucault M., 1991 [1975], p. 92). Therefore, there can be no power without the existence of free subjects and therefore without the existence of opposing groups fighting each other. The concept of governmentality in Foucault’s work is also closely linked to the bio-power concept developed in the first volume of the History of Sexuality (Foucault, 1990 [1976]). The notion of governmentality focuses on the ways of managing the populations that have developed modern states, but also the disciplining of the human body, without the use of coercion. This disciplining of the populations, which takes place within institutional frameworks, such as schools, etc. is promoted at the same time as the self-management ethics. Within this framework, institutions exercise coercion in such a way that acts are produced by the people themselves. We are not talking about coercion, because in the case of institutions like the school, these are willingly accepted as legitimate.


Foucault and education

In Foucault’s «Surveillance and Punishment» project, we investigate the extent of school practices that are indicative of the development of the power/knowledge relationships that we are referring to in this paper and can help us deepen our understanding of the subject under consideration: Foucault’s position regarding the power exercised in the body. The purpose of this work is to show that new forms of power and control are being created in modern times and not to show the functioning of the prison system, the army, or schools in today’s society. In the past, the punishment was aimed at the body, while today the soul. The body remains at the center and only here, through institutions such as the army and schools, the body is politicized as it develops methods that aim to dominate it in order to make it productive and useful economically (Foucault , 1991 [1975), without this implying violence.

In order to understand better the practices of the educational institution, we must follow their role in shaping subjectivity and how it gives us the effects of power , as analyzed by the French theorist.

From the 18th century onwards, «discipline is a type of power and it can be exercised either by specialized institutions (prisons) or by institutions that use it for a basic purpose (e.g. school) or pre-existing authorities, state institutions, mechanisms that have made discipline a fundamental principle of their internal functioning » (Foucault M., 1991, p. 283). The characteristics of this discipline are normalization, hierarchical supervision and examination. In this way, power creates useful people for it. At the same time, we are talking about the formation of a disciplinary society that holds the whole of the social formation.

Still, according to Foucault, this generalization of disciplinary systems has influenced the role of humanities and social sciences (psychiatry, pedagogy, psychology), the number of which has grown. Through these disciplines, disciplinary systems have acquired legitimacy.

Also, according to Foucault, there are four distinct features which characterize the individuality that discipline constructs: cellular (space), organic (activities), genetics (time) and combinatorial (Ibid, p. 219). We can see how these develop in the school space.

The ‘bourgeoisie’ became politically dominant, according to the French theorist, through this grid of discipline, and school was one of its  disciplinary mechanisms. This discipline, within the framework of the school, is implemented through the definition and organization of the place where it is practiced, and its basic principle is that of «networking» (Foucault, 1991, p. 190), each person occupying a certain position in the space. Features of this ‘networking’ aim at facilitating surveillance: controlling absences, moving people, avoiding clustering.

The geography of a school classroom consisting of student groups has a lot to teach us in this case. The position of each student obviously follows such a hierarchy (performance, gender, etc.) and thus leads us to sociological interpretations of school practices, since the classroom reflects the formation of the social space and what this entails (contrasts, inequalities, etc.). Therefore, by observing this organization, we cannot ignore the power strategies it embodies.

Secondly, the organization and the systematization of school activities (based on time, their usefulness, their repetition, etc.) indicate an automation, which is also the object of discipline.

Third is the disciplinary time (ibid, p. 208), which according to Foucault is linear since it serves a particular purpose. The organization of time within the school framework is very strict (start and end of school year, set of teaching weeks, duration of the course, escalation of examinations for student assessment, etc.). Within this strict timeframe, the student is supervised, evaluated and hierarchized, but primarily subordinated to such authority.

Fourthly, with regard to the composition of forces, we must refer to the various «commands» which regulate the behavior of the disciplined individual, for example, the striking of the teacher’s hand on the table or at the seat, which means that the teacher is trying to enforce his will. Undoubtedly, these are school practices that refer to the necessity of subjugating the individual.

Finally, we should not overlook two things. First, a disciplinary system needs a test system. Through the examining system, knowledge becomes legitimate, the teacher is the ‘bearer’ of knowledge and the learner becomes the ‘object’ of knowledge that can be used. And secondly, that a disciplinary system needs a criminal system that evaluates the different practices, in our case, school practices. According to Foucault, the criminal system is aimed at ‘normalization’, since ‘… it forces to compliance … ..’ and ‘… .charges the threshold that will determine the difference in relation to all other differences, the external boundary of the irregular «(ibid, p. 242).

Discipline is therefore not necessarily the practice of violence but the control and direction of individuals towards a particular purpose. The question in this case is how individuals can escape such normalization and lead to the empowerment of the Self.

From Surveillance Policy to Empowerment of the Self

It is clear from what we have discussed so far that, for the French theorist, knowledge is linked to the exercise of sovereignty, not of violence necessarily. Society is all structured on a particular relationship of power relations. Educational systems reflect, in turn, this very social formation. Through educational practices, power technologies control and protect the functioning of this education system.

The question, which is therefore reasonably posed, is whether we can finally get out of such a surveillance policy. How can one change the education system?

As many scholars admit (Fejes, A., 2008, p.160, p.203), what Foucault actually asks us to do to escape the tautology is to overcome ourselves so that we can show that there are other subject-positions. This can pave the way for emerging new relationships between knowledge and power.

A basic way of dealing with this is reflection, a complex process in which the individual’s beliefs are «judged» and «examined» to review an experience. Reflection has its origins in Dewey’s work (1910) when he distinguished between mechanically repetitive (and therefore habit-driven) acts and reflective acts based on self-evaluation and continuous analysis.

We are therefore talking about the development of meta-cognitive skills, in which we are called upon to realize the limits of our thinking, but also to realize and control even our feelings and motives. Through reflection, a student is led to think again of the process of solving a problem and is encouraged to self-assess. The same is the teacher. Reflection requires an interactive basis, which, at least to a certain extent, guarantees democracy, but also avoids the inertia of thought. The question of reflection is to think about the complex processes that surround us and to realize the limits and weaknesses of thought.

Reflection can indeed be a starting point for both teachers and students to resist a culture that is «passively» offered to them, and instead they can engage in a learning process that is participatory, dialectical but mostly politicized. Through reflection, both men and women are called upon to decide each time which ideologies, experiences, morals they want or have to keep and which they want to give up. But the next question would be, does this not, on the other hand, also seem utopian?

Some researchers admit that even participatory methods aiming at the empowerment of pupils can be simply «hidden forms of control and power» (Butin, 2001, p. 157). Practices such as the self-assessment of pupils, for example, may be seemingly only more democratic than others if it is the teacher who defines what is ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ while the student remains uninvolved in negotiating the criteria with which they should be self-assessed.

According to Foucault, some educational practices, while showing that their purpose is to control the «possible fields of action» (Foucault, 1982, p. 221), on the other hand, refuse to be released from the traditional one-way relationship of teacher-student, where the first teaches and the second always learns. They refuse to reverse the relationship and thus maintain the same power relationship. According to Popkewitz, control and power often change form only (Popkewitz, 1998, p. 24).

There are also some other analysts who argue that a new «pedagogical ethos and a new relationship between a teacher and a student will overturn the above identities» (Albrecht-Crane, 2005, p. 492). This can, for example, take place through a relationship where the student is invited to participate actively in a dialogue on the educational goals to be accepted or challenged (Oyler & Becker, 1997, p. 463), which in its turn means a form of freedom of choice on the part of the student and a way of resisting what has been tried to be imposed on them in a traditional school practice.


It is certain that the relations of power, as these have been formed in society, are complex. The area of ​​education, reproducing these relationships, has likewise created a complex grid of power relations by rejecting and marginalizing anyone who cannot play the role they have been asked to play. As complicated as a system of power can be, it does not mean that it leaves no room for resistance. Teaching practices such as reflection and generally self-managed learning can lead to self-empowerment by contributing to a different view of power relations between student and teacher. Despite the difficulties or pitfalls that may be involved in these practices, it is essential that both sides realize that the first objective to resist is to continue to ‘learn how to learn’.


Albrecht-Crane, C. (2005). Pedagogy as friendship: Identity and affect in the conservative Classroom. Cultural Studies, 19(4), 491-514.

Butin, D. W. (2001). If this is resistance I would hate to see domination. Educational Studies, 32(2), 157-176.

Dewey, J. (1910). How we Think. London : D. C. Health.

Fejes, Α. and Nicoll, Κ. (2008). Foucault and lifelong learning: governing the subject. New York: Routledge.

Foucault M., 1980 [1975]. Body/Power.  In  C. Gordon (ed.), Power/Knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings 1972-1977 by Michel Foucault. New York : Pantheon Books.

Foucault M., 1990 [1976]. The will to knowledge: The history of sexuality volume 1, London : Penguin Books.

Foucault  M., 1991 [1975]. Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison, Trans. A. Sheridan. Hammondsworth : Penguin Books.

Foucault, M. (1982). How is Power Exercised? In H. Dreyfus, & P. Rabinow (Eds.), Michel Foucault: Beyond Structuralism and Hermeneutics (pp. 216–226).Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Marsh James L., (1998). Truth and Power in Foucault. In L. Langsdorf and S. H. Watson (ed.), Reinterpreting the Political. Albany  : State University of New York Press,  291-310.

Oyler, C., & Becker, J. (1997). Teaching beyond the Progressive. Traditional Dichotomy: Sharing Authority and Sharing Vulnerability. Curriculum Inquiry, 27(4), 453-467.

Popkewitz, T. S. (1998). The culture of redemption and the administration of freedom as research. Review of Educational Research, 68(1), 1–34.



Artify your Summer Course Activities for Museum/Gallery visits

(This article was first published in the May – June 2017 issue of the ELTA Serbia newsletter ELTA-Newsletter-May-June-2017)

In summer courses, and not only, museum and gallery visits are part of the outdoor activities planned for the students. This article presents activities that teachers can prepare before, during and after museum and gallery visits with their students (these visits could be part of a summer course but not necessarily). The idea is that you motivate your students to learn more about the art resources in museums and galleries while  teaching them English at the same time, as well as activating their imagination. Hopefully, the activities described here will succeed in encouraging your students to experience these places as ‘living organisms’, full of possibilities for fun and not just as ‘sacred places’ that are unapproachable.




This picture is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license

The success of your visit depends on how it is integrated into the learner’s classroom work.

  • Be prepared! Learn about what you will see beforehand through pictures, research and discussion.
  • Get the museum trip off to a good start with a simple quiz show. You can also find some ready-made quizzes that you can use (the British Museum quizzz, n/d; Galleries – British Museum and Tate Modern , n/d; History quiz/Tour the National Gallery , n/d).
  • Remember to try to have a kind of competition in class to make it more challenging.
  • Be selective about what to look at on the visit – spending more time looking at a small selection of objects is more rewarding than trying to take in a large selection of objects in less detail.
  • Use materials designed to support ESOL learners participating on tours and workshops led by the Museum or make your own.
  • Make sure you already know the museum and its permanent collection before you plan any activities. If not, plan a visit to it yourself some time before you take your students there to familiarize yourself with it.
  • Make the activities fun and interactive.


Materials you can create

True/False Worksheets

Photos with museum objects

Museum maps

Find Someone/Something Who/Which….

Museum postcards


So, let us have a closer look at some specific activities we are suggesting you could use in your class.


Activity 1


Scavenger hunts 

Target level/audience : all

Materials : a list of items/objects the students have to search for


Yayoi Kusama  By Garry Knight –, CC BY 2.0,   


In a scavenger hunt, participants look for a series of items on a list, usually provided by the teacher.


Before the visit  :

  • Divide the class into two teams.
  • Give each team the list of things they must “hunt” for during their Museum visit. Tell the students to go and find the things on the list.

During the visit :

  • Every time they see something, they have to put a tick next to the word and note where they have found it. They might also have to keep some more notes next to it. Or you can ask them specific questions to answer which require certain details, e.g. something missing from a sculpture, the title of a painting, the name of an artist, etc.


Below you can find some sample lists of things that students could look for. Adapt the list according to the place/venue they are going to.

  • a specific artist :give them a specific name and ask them to write some bio details, write down 2-3 of his/her artworks that they liked in their visit
  • a specific era artwork : a pop art painting, an Impressionist painting, an Egyptian art artwork, etc. and , of course, they have to write down the title and the artist’s name
  • a specific painting, photograph, sculpture, etc. : Ask them to find a Warhol painting, or a self-portrait, a seascape, an urban scene, a landscape, etc.
  • Unknown words:  ask them to find and write down at least five words for things in English that they found in the museum/gallery they didn’t know before – they then have to record the new words and find their explanation.
  • People: find in a painting/photograph a young couple, a mother and child, etc. and then write a short description of each person (tall, short, clothes…)


You can also try to find  ready-made treasure hunt lists online which you can use  or it can be set as an example for you to create your own (Home to Home, n/d).


Also, if they cannot find the artworks they have to look for, some suggestions are :

  • advise them to ask for directions at the information desk  or generally ask the museum staff (that way they will engage in a conversation possibly with native speakers and practice their speaking skills)  ,
  • use a floor plan which all museums/galleries distribute for free at the entrance.

After the visit :  have students report back what they have found. Note also that Ss can bring their cameras to the scavenger hunt. They can use them to take photos and provide proof of their findings.


Activity 2


Draw your favourite artwork


Target audience/learners  : 11-18+

Materials : PCs, internet connection, smart phones, A4 white papers with or without the simple template shown below


Before the outing:  Ss can research any information they can about the museum/gallery they are going to visit on the internet. For example, let us consider Tate Modern as their next destination. Ask them to google search some practical information about the gallery (location, year it was established, etc.). Show them the gallery’s website and ask them to browse through the collection. Then, divide them in two teams and show them the quiz in the ppt. (Papageorgiou, 2017) .The team that gives the most correct answers , receives a small prize!

During the visit:  tell them you would like them  to imagine that they can take one piece of art home with them. They have to draw the piece they will choose and explain why they chose this piece of art (they can also take a photo of their chosen object and draw it later at home).

After the visit : class feedback- put Ss drawings on the walls around the class,  Ss go around read the descriptions and vote for the most interesting description.


Activity 3

Modern Art Gallery

Target level : 12+

Materials : cards to be completed (on one side the photo of the artwork is printed and on the other side there are some sections to be completed)


Before their visit : give your Ss the titles of specific artworks and ask them to find them in the Gallery and complete the cards that accompany the photos. Pre-teach them some expressions that they might need to use, e.g. “This makes me feel…”, “This piece is beautiful / ugly/ unusual/ extraordinary / different ”, “What the artist is trying to say is….”, etc.

During the visit : the Ss have to locate the specific artworks. The details on the cards have to be completed with the thoughts that the specific artworks create to them.  How can the Ss write their opinion on the artworks?

After the visit : the Ss have to present their cards to the rest of the group and  talk about their experience, if it was positive or negative and why.


Some examples :




My feelings:



Activity 4


Picture Story


Target level : 12+

Materials : an object/mascot of their choice, a camera


Before the visit :

  • Divide Ss into small groups.
  • Each student will need to choose an object or a mascot.

During the visit : Ss are going to take pictures with the object/mascot in different rooms/floors during their museum/gallery visit. Give them examples of pictures they need to take.

After the visit : When Ss are back in class, ask them to create a picture story using the photographs they have taken and explain more about the different sections of the museum they visited and the exhibits. Explain to them this is not going to be a simple ‘diary’ but they actually have to create a short story about their visit with them being the protagonists. You can upload their photo stories on an app like pinterest or padlet.


Activity 5


Video Diary


Target level : 12+

Materials : a camera or tablet, a PC, a projector, internet connection


Before the visit : Students are told that they will be conducting video diaries. Discuss with them what specific section/room they would be interested in presenting. They are going to be placed in pairs/groups, they can record a commentary of what they are doing/seeing.  Help them to research this area more and learn more about the exhibits. For this reason, they can visit the museum/gallery’s website and online collection. Give them some time for their preparation   

During the visit: Pupils record commentaries on their phones.

After the visit: Using a computer and a projector, different groups take it in turns to show their video footage.  



All in all, there are a lot of resources out there already so, if you are interested in preparing visits to art places and create activities to complement these, you can definitely find plenty. While some of them are ready-made and can fit the needs of an ESL class, most of them are not. There is no reason you cannot use the latter ones either though because what you need to do is set your objectives, try to find related material and adapt it to your particular needs each time. All museum and galleries worldwide have their own website and most of them have already started, for some years now, to share educational resources. The only thing you have to do is browse through and find what you are looking for. Here are some useful links for you to use :




My video activity for Nik Peachey’s new book ‘Digital video’

unnamedToday I am sharing the activity I wrote some time ago for Nik Peachey’s new e-book ‘Digital Video – A manual for language teachers’

You can buy the book online. Here is the link to it on iTunes:

And this link is for people who don’t use Apple devices:

The activity I wrote involves U-tube videos and hosting short debates on a controversial topic. You can check it out here :


I hope you enjoy it!